French, for putting into the scene
term originated in the theater
in film studies, everything that appears in the film frame
visible element within the film frame communicates meaning.
Four aspects of mise-en-scθne
costume and make-up
staging: movement and acting
Lighting is the direct manipulation of light and shadows for a
specific communication purpose.
Lighting is a major part of each shots composition, guiding viewer
attention to certain objects and actions.
Lighting can shape objects through highlight and shadow.
= a patch of relative brightness on a surface
highlighting can articulate textures (smoothness, roughness, shinyness)
Four Features of Lighting
the relative intensity of the illumination (depends on the situation)
hard lighting = more intense, creating defined shadows, crisp
textures, sharp edges
soft lighting = a more diffused illumination, edges of objects not
the path of light from its source(s) to the object lit
Five general types:
object is lit from the front, producing a flat-looking image with no
object is lit from the side, suggesting dimension and creating attached
object is lit from the back, producing a silhouette effect or, when used
with other lights, unobtrusive contour to the object
object is lit from underneath, tending to distort an objects
features/can also suggest a realistic light source (i.e., a lantern or fire)
object is lit from above, suggesting contours and depth
Lighting for high light/dark contrast, often
used to give characters or scenes an expressive quality.
available light (sunlight, moonlight, or preexisting light sources
on the set
extra light sources include:
key light = provides the dominant illumination and creates the
fill light = provides less intense illumination, softening or
eliminating shadows created by the key light
key and fill light are usually combined
combination of key light, fill light, and backlight
the dominant technique for television and Hollywood films
Lighting and Color
Generally, only white light is used, allowing the illuminated objects to
Filmmakers sometimes use filters and gels to change the hue of the shot.
sometimes to enhance realism (i.e., orange for firelight)
sometimes to stylize a shot (i.e., blue to suggest depression)
lightings counterpart is shadow.
Two types of shadows:
(also called shading) = when an object or persons features result in
inevitably fixed to its object
i.e., someones hat creating a shadow on part of their face
helps to reveal the basic form of an object and its texture
Light objects from above or the side if you want your viewers to perceive
protrusions and indentations as normal.
when an object or person is partially illuminated because another object
is blocking the light source.
i.e., a door casting a shadow on an intruder
can be connected or disconnected to the object
helps viewers to locate an object in relation to its surroundings
can suggest locale
can create a mood
can reveal time of day
the degree of contrast & rate of change from light to shadow
fast falloff = very quick (even abrupt) change from light to
caused by a bright, highly directional light source (spotlights/bright
can suggest a defined edge
slow falloff = gradual change & little contrast between
illuminated and shadow sides
caused by diffused light source (scoop/filtered)
when all sides are
definition of lighting
four features of lighting (quality, direction, source, color)
attached and cast shadows
fast and slow falloff