Politics and Civil Rights at the Local Level

I.    Local Government Responses to Minorities

    A.    Sources of Minority Influence

        1.    Size of Population   

        2.    Level of Majority Support

        3.    Effective Combining of Protests with Active Coalition Construction

        4.    Effective Leadership

        5.    Supportive Media Coverage

    B.    Policy Consequences

        1.    Increases in Minority Employment and Elected Officials

        2.    Little Influence on Broad Taxing-Spending Policies

        3.    Citizen Review Boards

II.    Education and Civil Rights

   A.    Segregation

    B.    Brown v. Board of Education

    C.    Bussing

        1.   Swann v. Charlotte Mecklenberg

        2.   Keyes v. School District

    D.    White Flight

III.    Affirmative Action/Group Preferences

    A.    Constitutional Constraints

        1.    Equal Protection Clause

        2.     Significant Supreme Court Interpretations

            a.    California v. Baake (1978)

            b.    Adarand v. Pena (1995)

            c.    Grutter v. Bollinger (2003)

    B.    Proposition 209

    C.    Gender Discrimination

        1.   Legal Equality

             a.    Equal Rights Amendment

        2.    Supreme Court Action

            a.    Reed v. Reed (1971)

            b.    Frontiero v.Richardson (1973)

            c.     United States v. Virginia (1996)

        3.    Americans with Disabilities Act

            a.     Examples of Action Required

            b.     Critical View of Costs of ADA

        4.    Abortions             

             1.    Early Status

             2.    Roe v. Wade (1973)

            3.     Webster v. Reproductive Health Services (1989)

             4.    Planned Parenthood v. Casey (1992) 

            5.    Gonzales v. Cahart (2008)

Key Web Sites

National Association for the Advancement of Colored People

American Civil Liberties Union

American Civil Rights Institute

National Urban League

       Useful Web Links